Pronunciation Key

Vowels

SoundComment
a   as sound of "a" in ahead, metal {short "a" }
aa   as sound of "a" in arm, cart, bar or as sound of "i" in ice, bite, fire {long "a"}
i   as sound of "i" in it, pencil, credible {short "i" }
ee   as sound of "i" in if, give, mirror {long "i" } or as sound of "ee" in feet or esteem
u   as sound of "u" in put, push, pull
oo   as sound of "o" in soon, spoon, fool {long "u" } or as sound of "u" in rule
e   as sound of "e" in egg, bed, merry or as sound of "a" in age, aim, came
ai   as sound of "a" in crane
o   as sound of "o" in go, low
au   similar to the sound of "ow" in owl (if it pronounced as single syllable)
.n   or .m   or -N-   or -M-   as sound of "um" in number, sound of "um" as in jump or umbrella
.ah   sound of "h" with hard stop
.a   sound of "a" as in cat
.o   sound of "awe" as in awe
.a.n   अँnasalized sound of "a" as in cat
.o.n   आँnasalized sound of "awe" as in awe
xr   distinct sound similar to gutteral sound of "r" as in riddle

Consonants

SoundComment
k   as sound of "k" in karate or sound of "c" in cut
kh   as sound of "kh" in khaki
g   as sound of "g" in gum
gh   as sound of "gh" in ghost
xn   similar to the sound of "n" in bring, thing. Rarely used in English
ch   as sound of "ch" in chuck;use of middle palate
chh   similar to the "ch" in chuck , but with the release of breath, or aspiration.
j   as sound of "j" in jug
jx   variation of sound of "j" in jug; use of front palate
z   as sound of "z" in lazy
zh   variation of sound of "z" in lazy; use of middle palate
yn   distinct sound of "y" and "n" pronounced together
t   as sound of "t" in tune, hit
tdh   sound of "dh" using back palate and moving toung down instantantly blowing air out
d   as sound of "d" in done
dhv   sound of "dh" using back palate as sound of "dh" in "adhere"
tn   sound of "n" using middle palate.
tv   soft sound of "t" , dental sound of "t" as sound of "t" in Spanish word "tamale"
th   as sound of "th" in thumb, thick
dv   as sound of "th" in mother, there
dh   as sound of "th" this
n   as sound of "n" in nun, none
p   as sound of "p" in pun
f   as sound of "f" in firm
b   as sound of "b" in bum
bh   as sound of "b" using lips and saying "b" and "h" together as in "bhaji"
m   as sound of "m" in mother
y   as sound of "ye" in yes
r   as sound of "ru" in run
l   as sound of "lo" in love
w   as sound of "wo" in work
sh   as sound of "sh" in shun {middle palate}
hsh   close to the sound of "ssion" in mission {back palate}
s   as sound of "so" in some
h   as sound of "hu" in hut
ksh   क्षas sound of letters "ksh" pronunced together
dn   ज्ञdistinct sound similar to "gya"
tvr   त्रas sound of "tr" in Russian word peristroika Or close to the sound of "tr" in tree if used front palate.

Variations of Consonants

Some borrowed words (from Persian and Urdu language) have sounds not available in Hindi, for such words nukta (dot under the consonant) is used for consonants k, kh, g, yn, f etc. Many newspapers, writers consider using nukta optional. For some words like doctor, borrowed from English, .o   is used to add .o sound to consonant.

SoundComment
k.x   sound of guttural "k", similar to sound of "q"
kh.x   sound of guttural "kh", similar to sound of "kh" in khan
g.x   sound of guttural "g"
j.x   ज़ variation of sound j  
z.x   झ़ variation of sound z  
xn.x   ङ़ variation of "xn"   "ङ्" , difficult to produce in English
dhv.x   ढ़ variation of "dhv"   "ढ्" , difficult to produce in English as in see-dhv.xee   सीढ़ी (ladder)
f.x   फ़variation of "f", similar to sound of "f" in fast